COIT 20262 Advanced Network Security

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Network security requires defense-in depth.

As an advisor, you will be advising a company to set up a WiFi network.

They are advised to use all the security mechanisms listed below to ensure defense-in-depth.

Give an overview of each mechanism, its function, and the main benefits and drawbacks.

Radio range control is achieved by using antennas.

Manual detection for rogue APs

The Internet uses encryption to protect data confidentiality. This means that other entities along the communication path between two hosts can’t read data being sent.

But encryption does not protect the identity of those communicating.

Even though the data cannot be read by other entities, they can identify which two hosts are communicating.

Consider that you would like privacy protection when web surfing.

When your client sends a HTTP request to a server, the IP header for the packet includes the IP addresses of your client and web server.

Any intermediate node in the Internet’s path between client computers and servers can see the values C or S to determine who is communicating.

The following are three methods that privacy protection can be used:

These techniques can be used to hide C and S values from intermediate Nodes on the Internet:

Web proxy


The following should be included for each technique

The diagram will provide an explanation of the technique.

Diagram showing addresses learned by malicious users, if this technique is used.

A recommendation about the person or thing this technique is suitable for.

Consider the pros and cons of each technique, as well as the needs and skills of different users.

What would a malicious user do to compromise privacy?

If the technique was used, learn both C & S.


WPA stands to Wi-Fi Protected Access and is a security standard used primarily by computing devices that have wireless internet connection.

WEP (Wired Equivalent Privacy), is the Wi-Fi Standard.

WAP is more advanced than WEP in encryption.

WPA encryption is also known as the temporal keys integrity protocol (TKIP).

TKIP mainly consists a variety of functions, such as message integrity checks and packet mixing.

WAP can provide stronger authentication by using 802.10x or the extensible Authentication Protocol.

WPA relies heavily on Radius as a central authentication server to allow users to connect to any network.

Software updates were released in 2003 that allowed WPA to be implemented on both client and server computers.

Access points can operate in both WEP/WAP modes and provide support for both its WEP customers and WPA clients.

Transmission Power, Range And Antenna

The average pick up of industrial facility default receiver wires accompanying an entrance point is around 2dB.

In the event that an entrance point has removable receiver wires, it is possible to replace the default reception devices with higher increase omnidirectional/directional radio wires.

By replacing a two-dBi standard receiving wire with a six-dBi, omnidirectional radio wire, the flagging quality is essentially boosted by 4 dB.

This pick up improves the flagging quality in place B by allowing it to maintain a 15 dB SNR as compared with the standard two-dBi radio wire which only 9 dB.

As a result, there has been an increase in the range of reception apparatus pick-up to provide a specific information rate which is 15 dB SNR.

For example, a higher-pickup receiver apparatus can be installed at an entrance point to increase run from the entry point to the customer’s radio and the customer’s radios to the entrance.

This is a unique way to expand transmit control beyond the entrance point. It would not only build run for interchanges from the entrance points to customer radios.

It is important to note that a more picky receiving wire increases the spread in the two headings. This is because the radio wire’s higher pick up enhances both transmissions and gathering radio waves.

The establishment of high-pickup receiving wires can result in significant increases in run without having to make any changes to customer radios.

Assorted wire selection can be used to increase the run of both bearings. It limits multipath spread, so higher-pickup reception apparatuses are not necessary.

A key part of 802.11n’s operation is the availability of varied variety. Different merchants offer different levels of decent variation and 802.11n access centers.

You can increase your run by choosing parts that offer a large amount of varied variety.

Transmission Power

The frequency band of 802.11 runs from low frequency to high frequency.

Different frequencies can be transmitted via these channels. However, there is negligible impact on the range for lower bands of frequency to higher bands of frequency. This all works on a principle that frequency increases result in a shorter range and vice versa.

It doesn’t matter which channel is chosen between 1-11 in the 2.4GHz band.

There is no difference in the frequency range between different frequencies.

The transmission signal choice must be clear enough to avoid interference from radio channels.

If the spectrum analyser shows that channel 11 is the most popular, there may be significant interference in the frequency band.

The interference may not affect the channel 1 or 3 at the lower end of band 1.

You can increase range by switching to channel 1 as the access point. This improves the SNR value in the entire area.

It is evident that channel 1’s noise level is 6 dB, which is less than channel 11.

Access Point Positioning/Signal Range

Because the receiving wire transmits radio signals, they are invulnerable to RF inspections and other wellsprings of obstruction that may reduce throughput or limit the scope of the gadget they are connected to.

These rules will ensure an excellent execution. Keep the reception apparatus clear of metal impediments like heating and cooling channels, roof trusses, superstructures and power cabling.

Use a steady course to bring down radio wires far from obstructions.

To make the radio wire more powerful, mount it.

You can do this by mounting the reception device as high as possible and placing it vertically.

The building’s thickness determines how many dividers the flag will need to pass while maintaining a sufficient scope.

Be sure to consider the following before you decide where you want to put your reception equipment. A flag can go through five to six dividers made from drywall, wood or both.

A steel fence or wirework that is approximately 1 1/2 in.

Consonant reflectors are used to block 2.4-GHz radio signals.

An opaque metal divider can reflect signals, leading to poor infiltration.

Flag entry is limited to three or four square dividers made of concrete or wood.

Flag infiltration is virtually impossible with paper and vinyl dividers.

Pre-thrown and solid dividers can limit flag infiltration to a maximum of two dividers, without debasing the scope.

To encourage flag proliferation, place the receiving wire at an angle.

You should keep the receiving wire away from microwave broilers, 2-GHz cordless telephones, and other heat sources.

Flag impedance could be caused by these items, which work in the same recurrence as the gadget your receiving cable is associated with.

RADIUS Authentication

Set up a WiFi arrangement at home by setting up a SSID/watchword, acknowledging the defaults and being done with it.

Everyone is happy when you share your watchword with friends and family.

The business WiFi system is quite unique.

You can set up a WiFi arrangement in your business with one secret word. This will allow employees and guests to sign on whenever you want.

If the WiFi arrange gives clients access, such as financials, licensed innovations, or client records, this is a particularly bad situation.

While you can change the WiFi key occasionally, then you must give it to everyone so that they can sign in again. This will start the problem from the beginning.

WiFi confirmation using RADIUS is the best way.

Let’s take a look at RADIUS and what it does.

A wide range of execution options.

You can either use RADIUS server software or free/open-source options like Free RADIUS to extend the range.

There are many server working frameworks and gadgets that have RADIUS embedded, so it is not necessary to buy additional products or equipment.

There are cloud-based RADIUS administrations that can be used to free you from the entire framework setup and support duties.

This is especially appealing for small organizations that have limited IT staff and budget.

Match up to LDAP/Active Directory.

You can set the framework with the goal of having the client’s system index passwords used to verify on the Wi Fi organise. This will allow clients to use one sign-on.

Individualized validation

Every gadget or client is given unique qualifications to get to the Wi Fi arrange.

No more watching out for others, because each client is responsible for his or her specific certifications.

Manual Detection Of Rough Access points

Any AP other that approved AP constitutes rebellion.

It is not possible to have AP to large businesses organize through the system.

It is important that the head physically isolates neighbouring APs.

Manual investigation should be conducted on a continuous basis as new neighbourhood APs appear and old ones are reconfigured.

Rogue AP Detection can be turned on in the WG302 and the AutoCell Enabled AP will continuously inspect the remote system and collect data about all APs they hear on their channel.

The data gathered includes SSID and MAC Address, Channel and AutoCell Enabled.

A client can approve an unidentified AP.

It is a security breach if the manual investigation is not done quickly and regularly.

This programmed anticipation of maverick APs cannot be turned off. Executives should first determine if a newly recognized AP is in the system, or if it’s only a benevolent neighbour AP.

To improve security, filter the remote system to find maverick-access focuses.

You must examine every accessible channel to identify unidentified APs in order to distinguish Rogue APs.

It is possible to see a real security threat if unidentified APs are using the SSID for a true blue system.

Web Proxies

A web proxy is a webserver that allows you to browse the internet and not reveal your IP address to anyone outside.

You might wonder how it would affect your privacy if someone else knew your IP address.

If it’s genuine enough, it won’t really matter.

If a programmer runs across your IP, however, that can pose a problem.

Programmers for PCs constantly search the Internet looking for unprotected IP addresses.

Once they locate one, they will attempt to hack it, often with malicious ends.

Proxy servers can be used as an obstruction to their operations.

All proxy servers follow a similar procedure.

You will need to first visit the proxy server’s landing page. Then, use the inquiry box to enter the URL of your desired site.

If the URL contains a significant number of characters, the proxy server will search for the equivalent page and show it.

You can browse the site as you would with a proxy.

Because the proxy stores the documents it brings to the site, the procedure can take a bit longer.

VPNs are shorthand for Virtual Private Networks. This allows clients to gain access to the system as well as any other information that is accessible through open systems.

It’s very easy to create one of these safe associations.

VPNs function in the same manner as Firewall in computers.

VPN is a WAN, or Wide Area Network. The front is identical to the one that holds security, utility and all other features in a private network.

Initially, the client interfaces with the Internet through an ISP. Then, the VPN association is created with the VPN server of the organisation using customer programming.

This is it!

The safe association is built by the customer programming and allows remote clients to access the inner system.

VPNs are a popular method of protecting sensitive information when using remote servers farms.

These systems are becoming increasingly common with a few clients and not only torrenters.

VPNs employ a mixture of dedicated relation and encryption conventions in order to create virtual P2P organizations. Even if someone managed to redirect some information, they would not be able access it due encryption.

VPNs also allow users to check their geographical location–the VPN supplier provides the client’s true IP address–allowing them to access content channels.

Tor is an Internet-based organising convention designed to anonymise information transmissions across the Internet.

It is difficult to use Torrent products if they are possible. To detect any problem over webmail, look back, social networking posts, or other online movements, you can check history and other web-based webmail.

Additionally, they will not be able to identify which nation you are by analysing your IP address. This could prove valuable for activists, writers and representatives.

The Tor arrange is run through thousands of volunteers from around the world’s PC servers.

Your data is encrypted when it enters Tor organise.

Tor claims to remove a small portion of the packet header. This, in contrast to typical Internet associations, is a part the tending data that could be used to gain information about the sender. For example, the working context at which the message has been sent.

Tor encodes what little tending data is left, the bundle wrapper.

The Tor organise works in an indirect manner, with parcels passing through it much like a man making a circuit through a city in order to shake hands.

Each transfer is able to decode the information bundle wrapper enough to identify the hand-off from which information was originated and the hand-off that it should be sent to.

The transfer wraps up the bundle in a different wrapper before sending it on.

They are called Tor and conceal the sender or recipient of a particular transmission.

If you use Tor Browser to access a site that doesn’t use encryption to secure clients’ associations, your information parcel won’t get scrambled after it influences the last Tor bounce that was handed-off to the site.

Because the information bundle’s ultimate goal is not within the Tor arrangement, this is why.

It is important to verify that SSL or TLS encryption is available on any site, and not just HTTPTP, before you try to secretly access it.

Layers of encoded delivery data that are used to anonymise information packets sent through Tor remind us of an onion.

If you give your Visa data to an internet store, it will pass the system in an encrypted state to prevent robbery.

It is possible to view the metadata of the data, such as who sent it and who received it, even though SSL or TLS is used.

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