IFN503 Fundamentals Of Computer Systems

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TCP/IP protocols, which are the heart and soul the Internet, describe the fundamental rules that govern all communication in the network.

Internet Protocol version 4 was the original address system used by the Internet.

To solve the long-anticipated issue of IPv4 addresses exhaustion, Internet Engineering Task Force IETF developed IPv6.

IPv6 cannot replace IPv4 instantly.

These are the fundamental characteristics and layered protocol stack design of TCP/IP protocols.

IPv6 and IPv4 differ in terms of

You can address space


Transition mechanisms to allow HostA (IPv6 host), to reach HostB (Ipv4 host).

Dual IP Stack Implementation and Why It is Important.



A research was done to determine the TCP/IP protocols used in data transmission.

Each layer of TCP/IP is responsible for sending out and receiving data packets. It also manages the data transfer to ensure the identification of data transmission.

For connecting to hosts that are connected to the network, IP addressing is crucial.

Basic Characteristics of TCP/IP Protocols. Layered Protocol Design Stack Design

Internet protocol suite can be used in the network. TCP/IP is the standard for building the stack and protocol suite.

Each module contains different modules that make up the stack. They also provide different functionality.

Each module should be independent and the high layer protocol is used to support the lower layer protocols.

The protocol stack is a collection the protocols that are used at different layers in the TCP/IP model.

Protocols are used to establish a network connection between various types of devices, primarily the five layers (application, transport, network data link, network, and data link).

The protocols stack can be used by devices in two categories: host system or end systems and intermediate node/system.

For communication with other devices, the intermediate node only uses the first three layers. There is some possibility that some device will use all five layers.

The layer is the element responsible for processing the data received and sent from the group.

Difference between IPv6 & IPv4

The main differences among the various versions of IP addresses are the addressing scheme used and the format of packets used to communicate in the network.

The IP address and the TCP are used to connect with different sources and establish a direct link between hosts.


Packet Format

It will have an IP header between 20 and 60 bytes. An address mask, which is used to designate the network connecting to that host, is used.

It is known as /nn and is used to identify the host portion.

The IP address length is 40 bytes. This is less than the IPv4 header.

An address mask isn’t used.

The address prefix, which is written with /nnn, is used to designate the subnet.

Address Space

4 bytes and 32 bit address are used. They are divided into different classes like A,B,C,D,E.

It can store 16 bytes, 128 bits or both. It runs on 64-bit architecture.

The Mac number is the interface’s address. The host part of IPv6 is deduced from this number and the architecture of it is more complicated than IPv4.

1028 times larger than the IPv4’s address.


The IPv4 address is represented by nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.nnn.ntn.nnn.nnn. 255 is the limit.

The maximum number that you can print is 15.

Double colons should be used to denote the 0 bits within the IPv6 Address.


Transition Mechanism

Dual stack is the transition method that allows host A, configured with IPv6 and Host B, configured with IPv4, to access host A. This transition mechanism is known as dual stack.

You can also use other methods to make the IPv4-IPv6 transition, such as address translation or tunneling.

The address translation mechanism can be used to remap the IP address from one host to another and modify the information of IP datagram packets’ network addresses.

Tunneling allows remote users to use a foreign protocol within the network.

Implementation of Dual IP Stack

It is important to analyze the nodes’ support for Dual stack.

Both the IP version and operation should be supported by the nodes. This will allow for the enabling and disabling of stacks.

The dual stack architecture consists primarily of three parts, the DSTM Client, DSTM Server and the DSTM Gateway.

Clients are dual stack nodes in the network that request an IPv4 address. They allow the IPv6 host and client to communicate with each other.

An DSTM server is used to allocate the IPv4 address and the IPv6 gateway for the nodes that are connected to the network.

The DSTM gateway serves as an end point tunneling device, encapsulating and decapsulating packets that are being tunneled through the network.


It can be seen that the TCP/IP protocol was used to evaluate protocols for communication with network nodes.

For the IPv4/IPv6 communication, it is crucial that the network administrator understands the difference between the IPv6 approaches. The dual stack mechanism must also be used.

The dual stack network environment is created. There are different IP management tools that can be used to ensure smooth transitions in the network.

Wireshark Detection and Analysis of Malicious Behavior in Real Time Wide Area Network Traffic.

I Know What Your Packet Did in the Last Hop: Using Packet Histories for Troubleshooting Networks.

In NSDI Vol.

Wireshark network analysis.

International Journal of Security and Networks (10(2)), 91-106.

SoutheastCon 2017, (pp.

Green computing in WAN using intensified teredo IPv6 VPN tunneling to route multifarious symmetric NAT.

Wireless Personal Communications, 87.2(2), 381-398.

Practical packet analysis: Wireshark can be used to solve real world network problems.

No Starch Press.

Network Traffic Classification techniques, and comparative analyses using Machine Learning algorithms.

In Computer and Communications, 2016 IEEE International Conference (pp.

Secure teredo client from NAT hole vulnerability

Computer Aided System Engineering (APCASE), 2015 Asia-Pacific Conference, (pp.

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