Read and study the relevant materials, including the textbook. Then answer the two first questions (a & B).
a. Define and discuss the relationships between Autonomous Systems, Intra-domain routing and Autonomous Systems.
b. Identify the major routing protocols used in Inter-domain or Intra-domain routing. List similarities and differences.
End by commenting on the reasons why different protocols are needed for Inter-domain or Intradomain routing.
These articles can be found on the Internet.
These articles can be supplemented with other references if needed.
Next, answer the remaining questions (c), d and e.
c) Describe in your own words and brief the problems that current routing methods have created.
d. Compare the concepts embedded routing and extensible routing.
e. How does Routing As A Service (RAAS, or just RAS) address problems in current routing methods?
a) Any networks on the internet with autonomous goals and objectives are called autonomous systems.
On the other hand, inter-domain routeing is a process routers use to reach other networks beyond their domain.
Inter-domain routing is mainly used by service providers (ISPs), to connect different users with different networks and even to tier providers.
This routing protocol can also be modified to meet administrator settings.
Intradomain routeing is primarily about distributing network paths based on link quality or load balancing.
In this way, routers within a given domain can locate specific routes to different destinations as well as for different subnets.
Examples: RIP (routeing Information Protocol), EGRIP IS/IS and OSPF (Snoeren, 2014).
Inta-domain routeing allows for distribution of networks within one domain. It then transitions into inter-domain pathing, where networks wish to reach destinations outside their domain.
You can find it on the internet.
These autonomous systems will then determine the routes used by inter-domain routing protocols. They have different functionalities, and goals.
These concepts are what define the communication process used to route networks to different destinations (Maggio 2015.
Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) – Inter-domain routing
Intradomain routing – RIP (enhanced gate routing protocol), EGRIP (enhanced route routing protocol), OSPF [Open shortest path first] and IS-IS (“Intermediate System to Intermediate System)
Similarities between them
All routing protocols are used to locate suitable routes (routes) to network destinations. This is done based upon the quality of the links, i.e.
For choosing suitable routes, parameters like latency and bandwidth are considered.
RIP, EGRIP & BGP fall under distance vectors routing protocols. In this case routers know only their neighbors and use them to reach their destinations.
OSPF and IS-IS fall under link state routing protocols, which include a complete map for the connected domain.
BGP is an inter-domain routing protocol that redistributes networks among domains, while the rest (intradomain), routes networks between singledomains.
BGP can be made customizable based on user requirements. Administrators can choose the path to follow, while the rest of the options are determined by the quality of the links.
Routing protocols are crucial because they connect networks with other networks.
But each protocol has a role that is unique. EGRIP plays a key role in load balancing, even if it is not equal, while BGP using the distance vector protocol requires few resources to route tables, facilitating the communication with multiple networks (FWI 2017.
c. Inter-domain routing is still a challenge, especially when it comes to meeting the demands of both end users (ISP) and service providers (ISP).
It is still a struggle for resource control that characterizes the current routing protocols. They offer very little end-to-end control to the end user, while the ISP (autonomous networks) have full control.
The current operational methods and pillars for inter-domain routing, i.e.
Local control, bilateral agreement and distributed algorithm.
Each method gives ISP(s), complete control (Lakshminarayanan and Stoica 2006).
Additionally, the existing routeing protocols are not flexible and cannot be sold due to their lack of development infrastructure.
All of the existing routeing protocols have a default path.
Furthermore, flexibility is not available at the expense of scalability. Or vice versa, where users have limited flexibility and scalability.
The basic building architecture for modern routing systems is also based on older routeing models, which are not able to provide both the physical and the logical separation of the networks.
It is the limitation of physical separation that causes network scalability.
Logical limitations render these networks vulnerable to attacks and make traffic management difficult (Lakshminarayanan & Stoica & Stoica 2005).
d. The internet and its routes protocols have attempted to adapt to new applications and demands.
Embedded Routeing is a research technique that facilitates faster network adaptability by adding new (hardcodded) routing protocols to existing methods to increase their suitability for extensibility or flexibility (Loo. Hellerstein. Stoica. Ramakrishnan 2005).
However, extensible routing is a new type of routeing protocol that has made complete infrastructural improvements to allow for fully extensible networks.
This is in contrast to embedded routing, which employs the same old computational algorithms for determining routes. However, extensible routeing uses intelligent routing algorithms to adapt to each situation with different requirements (IEEE Xplore 2017,).
e. The RAS model addresses the current problems by providing a service (RAAS) that computes customized routes. This allows end users to take care of their resource requirements.
In other words, there will be three parties involved: the end user (RSP), the service provider (SP), and the routing service providers (RSP).
RSP will negotiate the terms for the other parties, so that they don’t interact with each other directly.
RSP will negotiate terms between the ISPs and users who have different requirements.
FWI, 2017 Routing Protocols Types: RIP, IGRP and OSPF; EGP, EIGRP; BGP, IS – IS.
IEEE Xplore 2017 Intelligent extensible Routing in Overlay Networks With Embeddible Resource Planning Shell: A case Study with deadline-based packet forwarding.
M & Thomas.
R (2014), Comparison of RIP (EIGRP), OSPF, OSPF, IGRP Routing protocols in Wireless Local Area Networks (WLAN) using OPNET Simulator tool – A Practical Approach.
IOSR Journal of Computer Engineering (16(4)).
Lakshminarayanan. Stoica &Stoica 2005. Routing As a Services.
University of California Berkeley.
J, 2006 Routing As a Service.
I & Ramakrishnan.
R, 2005. Declarative routing:
Extensible Routing with Declarative Quries.
A, 2014, What’s the difference between intra-domain and inter-domain routing?
A, 2014, Lecture 14. Inter-domain routing.
CSE: Computer networks.