CIS 527 Computer Networks

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Define the layers of TCP/IP and OSI and explain their similarities and distinctions.

Explain TCP/IP/UDP, their differences and how they can be used

Explain what a hub, active hub and switch are and how they differ.

Check out all network-guided media

Discuss the differences between wire and fiber optic, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of each.


OSI model is made up of the following layers: presentation layer, application layer, session layer. Transport layer, network layer. Data-link layer.

TCP/IP model layers include the application layer, transport and internet layers, as well as network access layers (Alani (2014)).

TCP / IP only has four layers while the OSI model contains seven distinct layers.

Both the transport layer as well as the internet layer are the same in both models.

TCP/IP layer’s application layer is composed of the application layer, presentation and session layers.

TCP/IP Layer also contains the network access layer, which is the data link layer and physical layers in the OSI models.

Figure 1: Encapsulation and Capsulation in the TCP/IP layer

Capsulation is the act of hiding or protecting data from being misused and interfered with by another system.

Data is transmitted from a higher layer to a lower layer by adding a bunch of information as ‘header’ along with the original data.

The data is transferred to the next layer by repackaging the header file (Medhi & Ramasamy, 2017).

The header that is added to the original data refers to any supplemental data that is being transmitted alongside the original data.

Encapsulation is the process of packing data using the header file at each level.

De-capsulation. This is when the packet process is reversed.

This happens when the information in the receiver computer is processed (Tiwari, et al. 2014).

As the information is being transmitted to the higher layer, the networking layer extracts the header files from the data and transfers it to the next level.

TCP/IP: TCP/IP is one of the most reliable protocols for data transfer among networks.

The computers must have an established connection to each other in order to perform this task.

UDP: The UDP protocol allows data to be transferred between computers.

UDP doesn’t require any existing connection between the devices in order to communicate.

TCP/IP and UDP differences:


Speed is key

Speed is very low

Heavy Overhead

Datagram oriented

Streaming Oriented

End to end connection, no congestion, no commitment

Congestion control through dedicated connection

Data reached the computer in order of transmission

Ordered buffering ensures that the data are received in their correct order.

Not present is acknowledgment of data receipt

Receipt acknowledgement of receipt following successful transmission

TCP /IP: TCP/ IP is widely used in real-time applications, such as large file transfer using File Transfer Protocol. (Reiter (2014)

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), which is used to exchanging commands between computers, is available in addition to hat.

UDP Application: Various internet apps, such as DHCP (“Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol”), RIP (“Routing Information Protocol”) and SNMP (“Simple Network Management Protocol”) use UDP to transmit video and voice traffic.

Figure 2: Hubs, switches and routers

Hub: Goralski (2017) defined hub as a multiport repeater, which connects various wires to different stations or topologies.

The hub acts as a connector, but it does not filter any data that passes through it.

Bramante (2015) and Edwards (2015) demonstrated that all connected systems have the same collision domain.

Hub is capable of transmitting packets from one port to another.

Active Hub: Devices that can signal amplify and regenerate information system are called active hubs.

The normal hub transmits information to many devices simultaneously, but it can also enhance the information being sent.

Switch: A switch can be described as a network device that improves the performance and the communication over the network.

The switches are capable of filtering and error checking packets between the network layer (the hub) and the data link layer (the switch).

Router: The router is a device that transmits data packets.

Routers are used to connect two or more networks (Maj, et al. 2016).

Routers can be used to connect two networks (LAN and WAN).

Routers use a variety protocols to communicate within the network.

Routers connect computers by using switches.

Below is a list of four important types of networked guided mediums.

Optical fiber;

Open Wire

Coaxial Cable

In the following section, we will illustrate the difference between fiber optics transmission and wires transmitting.

Wired Medium

Fiber Optics

Type of data

Data transmission over wire for communication is the basis of communication in the wired medium.

Data can be transmitted using electric signals.

Fiber optics uses the fiber optic core as a means of communicating data.

The data is transmitted as light in this type of communication.


The speed of wired media is slower, and can exceed 300Mb (Tiwari and al., 2014).

Fiber optics have a standard speed that is much higher than the average and can reach 10 Gbps for standardized performance.


While the material costs are low, they will eventually lead to higher maintenance and hardware costs.

Material costs can be high but long-term maintenance costs will make it less expensive.

These wires can be easily damaged by extreme environmental conditions.

It is resistant to many environmental conditions.

Below is a section that illustrates the benefits and disadvantages of wires transmission and fiber optics.

Wired Medium

Fiber Optics


Transmission of data without any distortion

Installation costs are low

Provides high bandwidth

It uses both analogue and digital signals for transmission

Distortion is not as severe as it seems

Electromagnetic Interference does not have any effect

High data transmission speed


One cable can fail, and the entire network may be damaged.

High maintenance cost (Rayes, & Salam,2017).

It is difficult and costly to maintain.

Because of the light, routing signals is not possible.

Refer to

Guide to OSI and TCP/IP models.

Networking self-teaching manual: OSI and TCP/IP LANs, Mans, WANs. Implementation, management, maintenance.

John Wiley & Sons.

The Illustrated network: TCP/IP in a modern network.

State Model Diagrams to Teaching Networking-a SOLO Based Assessment.

Modern Applied Science 10(10), 231.

Network routing algorithms, protocols, & architectures

The Internet in IoT/IP–OSI. TCP/IP. IPv4 and IPv6. Internet Routing.

Internet of Things From Hype To Reality (pp.

Springer International Publishing.

Wireless connectivity for Internet of Things.

TCP/IP Protocol Suite. Attacks. Security Tools.

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