COIT12206 TCP IP Principles And Protocols

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Question:

Part A

Question 1

(a) Please explain why the client issues an open for the control and a closed for the data connections.

(b) Why should anonyme FTP be restricted?

What could a malicious user possibly do?

Question 2

Which field(s), in the IP header, change from router to router.

Please explain why they changed.

Question 3

IP and UDP are unreliable protocols.

Are they equally unreliable?

Please explain why.

Part B

Question 1

An ISP is given a block IPv4 addresses with the CIDR notation of 132.34.12.0/23.

The following table shows the three (3) sub-blocks of addresses that your organization should have in order to use them in its three subnets.

First subblock of 120 IP addresses that are usable.

Second subblock of 100 IP addresses that can be used as host IP addresses

Subblock 3 of 60 IP addresses usable by host hosts

Answer these questions to calculate the subnetworks for each of the three subblocks.

What is the subnet Mask of the Subblocks?

What is the first and final address of subblocks?

Detail calculations are required for each answer.

Question 2

The RIP routing protocol is used in an IPv4 network by router HQ.

Router HQ has the routing information listed below.

Table 1: Routing information of router headquarters

D – EIGRP. EX – External EIGRP. O – OSPF. IA – OSPF Inter Area

N1 – OSPF NSSA exterior type 1, N2- OSPF NSSA exterior type 2

P – Periodic downloaded static route

Gateway of last resort not set

Variably subnetted at 141.14.0.0/16, 2 subnets, and 2 masks

C 141.14.0.0/16 directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/0

L 141.14.1.1/32 has a direct connection, GigabitEthernet0/0

Variably subnetted, 141.15.0.0/16 has 2 subnets, C 141.15.0.0/16 has 2 masks, GigabitEthernet0/1 is directly connected, GigabitEthernet0/1 is directly connected. GigabitEthernet0/1

R 192.168.1.0/24 – [120/1] via: 141.15.1.2 – 00:00.07, GigabitEthernet0/1

R 192.168.5.0/24 – [120/1] via: 141.15.1.2 – 00:00.07, GigabitEthernet0/1

Based on the routing information found in Table 1, answer the following questions.

a) Design and construct the classy routing tables for the HQ router

HQ Router gets a packet with destination address 192.168.5.10.

The network is used to answer the questions below.

Describe the details of how the packet was forwarded by HQ Router.

Question 3

An Ethernet sublayer receives 1510 bytes from the LLC layer.

a) Is the data possible to be encoded in one frame

If not, how many frames must be sent?

b. What size data is in each frame?

Part C

Question 1

You are the head network administrator of a large manufacturing firm that is completing support for IPv6.

Six major locations are home to network administrators. Each location has several thousand users.

The base IPv6 address used by the company is 2001:DB8/FAB/48. Network administrators will be able subnet their networks in any way they choose.

It is important to keep a reserve of address slots for possible 6-10 additional locations.

Each network administrator should have the ability to create at least 200 subnets based on the addresses they provide. Each location should have the exact same amount of address space.

What IPv6 addresses should each location have?

List each location as Location 1 and Location 2.

Question 2

You have created a LAN that includes 25 workstations, 3 network printers, 2 servers, and 3 network printers.

You will assign dynamic IPv4 addresses to the workstations.

Both the servers and printers must have the same IPv4 Address assigned using static IPv4 addresses.

The classfull IPv4 Block 192.168.1.0/24 is assigned to the network.

For this LAN, you will need to set up the DHCP server at router R1.

Do not include static IP addresses allocated to servers, printers, or gateways in this configuration.

These are the resulting answers:

a) Write router commands in R1 to configure this DHCP Server.

b. Explain how each command is used.

Answer:

Part A

Question 1 (A).

File Transfer Protocol establishes separate TCP connections between client and server using two modes, active mode or passive mode. These two modes allow for the transfer of commands and data via the two different channels.

Passive mode establishes the data channel to the server from the client. Active Mode establishes the command channel to the client.

Anonymous IP addresses are network nodes that are unknown to the server.

The anonymous user could be an attacker, who can manipulate the system easily.

It is important to have anonymity.

A malicious user could easily use tools to guess the password to the server using wildcards. He or she also may upload large amounts to the server to slow it down, or to replace existing files with the exact same name. This can cause damage to other nodes when they attempt to access the file.

Question 2

IP header contains information about various fields. These include the source IP and destination IP of packets, as well as the TTL (time-to-live) which determines when packets will be online.

It is necessary for a packet to travel through several routers before it can be sent from one end of the network to reach its destination.

While one packet is generated at its source location, an IP header is created using the above-mentioned information.

The packet must travel through multiple routers before the IP headers can be modified.

The router receives the first packet. At that point, the IP header includes source IP as well as destination IP.

Once the packet is forwarded to the next hop or router/node by the router, the IP header modifies its source IP to reflect the router’s own IP and the destination IP to reflect the IP of next hope or next node.

Another field is TTL (Time to Live). When the packet is generated, it assigns a limit of time for which the packet can remain alive.

The TTL reduces each time the packet is sent through router.

If the TTL is reduced to zero or 0, then the packet stops being sent and the packet is removed from the channel.

Question 3

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) is a layer four protocol, while IP or Internet Protocol, which is the layer three protocol in the TCP/IP model is IP.

Because they serve different purposes, they are not equivalent in reliability.

UDP is the protocol which transmits data without creating a secure connection with the other end. It doesn’t usually care about whether the data reaches its destination or not.

TCP is a layer 4 protocol that establishes secure connections with other ends and then transmits data after it has received the acknowledgment.

TCP is considered reliable and UDP unreliable.

IP, the layer 3 protocol, encapsulates the datagrams sent down by UDP and TCP. The packet is then forwarded to the destination node.

It is now clear that the reliability of packet delivery depends not on IP but on UDP or TCP protocols.

Also, both IP and UDP protocols are reliable to a certain degree.

Part B

Question 1 (A).

Subnet Name

Required Host

Subnet Mask

Subnet A

Subnet B

C Subnet

Name of the Subnet

First IP

Last IP

Subnet A

Subnet B

Subnet C

Question 1 (C).

This IP block must be divided into three sub networks, each with 120, 100, 60 hosts.

Subnetting takes host bits and acts as network bits.

Borrowing 1 bit of the host Part will create 21 or two sub networks, and borrowing 2 bits will create 22 to 4 sub networks.

This will require 120 hosts to form the first sub network. In this instance, 27 to 128 IPs (or 7 bits) are assigned for the host Part while 25 bits are assigned for the network Part.

Subnet A

(The network bits will stay the same, but the host bits won’t change.

(The hosts bits and networks will both be active.

First IP: 134.34.12.1. Next IP of the network is 134.34.12.1

Last IP: 133.4.12.126 (The broadcast address’s previous IP)

Subnet B

(The network bits will stay the same, but the host bits won’t change.

(The hosts bits and networks will both be active.

First IP: 134.34.12.129. (The next IP in the network address).

Last IP: 134.34.12.254. This is the previous IP of broadcast Address.

Subnet C

(The network bits will stay the same, but the host bits won’t change.

(The hosts bits and networks will both be active.

Initial IP: 134.34.13.1. Next IP of the network is 134.34.13.1

Last IP: 134.34.13.62

Question 2 (A).

Destination

Network Mask

Interface

Not set

GigabitEthernet 0/0

Connected

Not set

GigabitEthernet 0/0

Local

Not set

GigabitEthernet 0/1

Connected

Not set

GigabitEthernet 0/1

Local

GigabitEthernet 0/1

Local

GigabitEthernet 0/1

Local

A packet with destination 192.168.5.10 is received by the router. It modifies its IP header as well as the destination and source addresses.

The router then despatches the packet using the port GigabitEthernet 0/1 as well as the gateway IP 141.15.1.2.

Question 3 (A).

Ethernet frames allow for transmission of up to 1500 bytes.

The 1510 bytes of data cannot be encapsulated in one frame.

To transmit the 1510 bytes of data, it will take two frames.

The maximum Ethernet frame size is 1500 bytes.

Thus, the first frame will include 1500 bytes and the last frame will have 10 bytes.

The Ethernet frame includes the Ethernet header of 14 bytes. They will attach to the frame. The sizes of each frame will be 1514 and 24, respectively.

Part C

Question 1

Currently, the organisation exists in six different places.

It is possible that it will expand its operations to ten additional locations.

For 16 different locations, sub-netting of IPv6 block 2001 :DB8 :/48 is performed.

IPv6 will create Sub networks by using a given that contains four bits or one nibble.

Position 1:

Location 2

Location 3

Location 4

Location 5

Location 6

Location 7

Location 8

Location 9

Location 10

Location 11

Location 12

Location 13

Location 14

Location 15

Location 16

These IP blocks will now be available to the network administrators for these locations.

They will be able easily to Subnet these IP blocks to 200 Subnets of equal size.

It will be necessary to borrow 8 bit or two nibbles in order to create 200 Subnets.

It will however allow for only 27 or 128 Subnets if 7 bits are borrowed.

Question 2 (A).

Connect the router and workstation via a console cable. The router will allow you to access the configuration terminal.

Once you have access to the configuration terminal of the router, follow these steps to configure it:

R1# configure terminal

R1 (config)# interface gigabitEthernet 0./0

R1 (config-if).# ip address: 192.168.1.1.255.255.255.0

R1(configif)# exit

R1(config.# Ip DHCP Pool mypool

R1 (dhcp configuration)# network 192.168.1.0 255.255.255.0

R1 (dhcpconfig# exit

R1(config.# Ip DHCP Excluded-Address 192.168.1.1

Apply this configuration in router. Next, navigate to server and printer settings. There you will find the option to automatically obtain IP addresses.

After that, all devices on the network will have an IP address provided by the IP pool.

R1# configure terminal — This command switches on router configuration mode.

R1 (config)# interface gigabitEthernet 0/0 – This command selects Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 port to configure the interface.

R1 (config-if).# ip Address 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 – The command assigns the ip addresses 192.168.1.1 255.255.255.0 and their Subnet Mask 255.255.255.0 the Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 port.

R1 (config-if# no shutdown – This command turns the port Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 ON.

R1 (config-if# exit – This commands returns to the original configuration mode or leaves Gigabit Ethernet 0/0 Interface configuration mode

R1 (config)# ip dhcp Pool mypool – This command generates a dhcp server pool. The pool name will contain a range ip addresses to be used for DHCP purposes.

R1 (dhcp-config]# network 192.168.1.0.255.255.255.0. – This command contains all the ip addresses that are part of the 192.168.1.0/24 IP pool.

This is the range of 192.168.1.1 up to 192.168.1.254

R1 (dhcp_config]# default-router 192.168.1.1 – This commands assigns the default routers IP or default gateway to the DHCP pool.

R1 (config)# IP DHCP excluded-address 192.168.1.1 – This command exempts IP 192.168.1.1 of the pool since it has been assigned to the router.

R1 (dhcpconfig)# CTRL+Z – This command saves your configuration.

References

Ando, Y.; Nagao H.; Miyao T. and Shudo K., 2014 September.

The only method for building routing tables is based on query flows that are used to construct structured overlays.

Peer-to-Peer Computing – 14-th IEEE International Conference, (pp.

The Illustrated network: TCP/IP in a modern network.

System and method of load balancing multiple FTP servers in order to serve FTP connections via a cloud-based service.

Packet Tracer simulator applications in course Router Configuration.

Electronic Test, 8, 019.

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