BN106 Networking Fundamentals

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Question:

The Orkney islands, located 10 miles north of the northern corner of Scotland, are an archipelago that consists of 70 islands. These islands cover approximately 990km2, 20 of which are inhabited.

The exact number depends on what you consider an island or a rock. In general, an island is defined as one that you can keep a sheep on for at least one year.

Orkney’s population is about 20,000 with approximately 15,000 living on the largest of the islands (known as Mainland).

Stromness (2,200), Kirkwall (8,500), and Stromness (2,200), are both located on the mainland.

The rest of the population is spread across the islands, in small villages and isolated homes.

Fishing and small-scale farming have been the mainstays in the economy.

Recent developments in North Sea Oil have provided income and employment to the islands, primarily through the Flotta oil terminal.

A developing tourism industry is also being developed, largely due to the unique wildlife and archaeological sites of the islands.

However, there are other employment opportunities available due to changes in farming and fishing as well as uncertainty about the long-term future of North Sea Oil supply.

Internet access is available to most major cities, but they are often very inconsistent.

While some of these are fast and reliable, others may not be as reliable.

Remoter parts of the Mainland, as well as some remote islands, have difficulties getting any kind of connection. Some still rely upon dial-up connections which are outdated.

This hinders modern ecommerce solutions and prevents on-line business development.

It also affects tourism because more people search and book their holiday online.

Requirements

To provide an explanation of the options for providing high speed, reliable Internet access to North Ronaldsay (the most northern of the islands), you are required to submit a report to Orkney Islands Council.

Nearest Postcode KW172BE

Lat (WGS84). N59.22:19 (59.371925)

Long (WGS84), W2:24.59, (-2.416359)

OS Land Ranger HY764540

You can find the island easily by visiting www.streetmap.co.uk/maps.google.com, which both offer street level mapping for the UK. Type in “North Ronaldsay” and you will be taken to the appropriate page.

You can zoom to see a closer or wider view.

You will need to zoom in to see the StreetView.

Searches for North Ronaldsay island will bring up this remote location.

Prepare a formal report describing the available technologies to provide reliable, high speed Internet connectivity to the island.

Think about the problems this location poses and how technologies can solve them.

Make recommendations about which technologies you should use to connect all the buildings on this island to the Internet.

You can see that the island is almost flat from the maps at www.streetmap.co.uk. The highest point is only 20 metres.

It is necessary to trace the entire route from the island’s location to the Internet backbone.

This will require more than one technology.

The Orkney Islands Council collects taxes from oil companies that use oil terminals on the islands. It then directs the money to development projects within the island.

This project will be funded by oil taxes. Therefore, costs are not a limitation. However accountants will need to understand the relative cost of your solutions.

Answer:

The North Ronaldsay is an Island that is part Orkney Archipelago, which is in Scotland. It consists of 691 ha of land and the other islands that form Orkney Archipelago.

This island is located in the Orkney archipelago’s northern section and is 14th in terms of its size.

This island is home to many different economic activities, such as fishing and farming. But, it also offers many tourist attractions that will draw people to the country.

The island’s economy depends heavily on tourism. However, the network connection is not fast enough and is not reliable. This makes it difficult to book tours of the country. Therefore, there is a need for better connectivity to the whole island.

Geographically, this island is located on the map in longitude (59.371925) and latitude (-2.416359) as shown in the below maps.

Current internet connection available on North Ronaldsay Island

North Ronaldsay Island faces challenges with its internet connection. This is because the island has low internet access speed and is not reliable.

Two technologies are used to connect the internet, but they are not reliable. These two technologies include:

SHEFA-2: Modern High Speed Links

This is a type of technology that was adopted to provide internet services in a certain area of the island. However it is very unstable and highly populated so it is not reliable.

SHEFA-2 is a type communications cable that transmits below the sea. It connects the North Isles to the mainland, and then the Scotland. SHEFA-1 succeeded it.

Although the dial-up connection was another way to connect to the internet, it is now obsolete.

It is this technology that has enabled connectivity to remote areas on the island and the mainland. Some areas receive poor internet connections while others get it completely.

A dial-up connection is one that requires you to use a telephone line to establish a connection with any server, hubs, or servers. Users will need to dial-up in order for them to communicate. However, they will still need to have a modem device to establish the internet connection.

These are the major problems caused by dial-up internet connections, which we will discuss below.

Low connectivity speed

The dial-up connection’s slow speed is its biggest drawback. Although 57000 bytes per second transmits data, it is still faster than any other technology.

Users are most discouraged by the slow loading speed, as they don’t have access to any information online.

Instability with dial-up connections

Certain online activities demand a reliable internet connection. These include streaming live data online or uploading large files. However low speeds are discouraged in certain places where landline telephony is required.

High internet is required for downloading and other tasks, such as calling.

A phone line is required

The phone line used for dialling the internet is the only thing that limits dial-up access to the internet.

But if the laptop is not equipped with wireless cards, he can’t move until he gets to the destination.

Engagement is possible with the Phone Routes

This happens when the landline phone is being used. In this case, there may be calls to a line that is busy or termed to have been engaged. It means that data are being transmitted so no other activity is possible until the process is completed.

You have many options to get reliable internet connection with high speed and reliability

The connectivity to the internet is difficult for north Ronaldsay Island. There are numerous challenges associated with booking online as tourists.

However, there are many new technologies that can help to improve internet services and provide better service to those who live on the island. Here are some alternatives technologies to be considered.

The cable is one technology that supplies the internet. It is also known as the TV cables Internet. This cable is most commonly used in urbanized areas.

The TV cable has the ability to provide internet connectivity at speeds up to 30 Mbps and 100 Mbps.

You will need the modem and the line to access the internet.

Below are some of the relative properties for TV cables

Speed

The Downward speed ranges from 25 Mbps up to 100 Mbps.

The increasing up speed ranges from 2Mbps up to 8Mbps.

The latency level can vary from 150 ms to 500ms depending on the location.

Cost

The monthly payment is $25-$90 and the initial installation charge.

Advantages

Cable internet provides the fastest internet connection over a long distance.

It’s useful for sharing files, downloading or streaming movies online.

This is a more efficient way to play games, since latency is low.

It’s ideal for families, since multiple computers can use one shared cable.

While using the TV, and the VOIP telephones, the TV cable usage is acceptable.

These modems may be quirky in certain cases.

If one requires more downloads, a booster will be required. This is usually more expensive.

Some cases are more hectic than Bandwidth in terms of games latency.

The internet connection will be shared to nearby people, and it lowers the speed for those who do downloads.

Digital Subscriber Line

DSL is another technology. There are however three forms of DSL available that vary in the speed of the internet.

DSL is an internet connection technology that uses the telephone line to the home.

DSL allows internet access at speeds of between 8 Mbps and 15 Mbps. This speed is good enough to use the internet for simple tasks like playing games. To install these technology, however, one will need to install a modem along with a single microfilter.

Here are some characteristics of DSL internet connectivity.

Speed

The Downward speed ranges from 1.5 to 15Mbps.

The increasing up speed ranges from 128 kbps down to 1.0 Mb/s

The latency level can range from 75 ms-400 ms depending on the location.

Cost

Users are required to pay $35-50 per month in addition to the initial installation costs.

Advantages

This feature is available to subscribers of telephone lines.

It is more easily accessible in remote or rural areas than cables.

The bandwidth is not shared between neighbors so the speed of your internet connection remains constant.

It’s great to use by people who play online computer games.

ADSL is slower than cable internet connections.

It is not suitable for heavy tasks like downloading files and sharing them.

There is a limit on the number of users, so it is not appropriate for all members of the family or group.

3G/4G Wireless Telephone Phone Internet Connection

This is the third option for internet connectivity. It is best for people who live in cities, but it is also great for people who travel or who reside in rural areas.

HSPA+ and 4G technologies make things even better. Over 100mbps are offered over a number of years. Therefore, according to the current trend, the 4G seems like the best internet connection since it is wireless.

To connect to the internet, the 3G/4G wireless connection required phones. This is because the phone tower and telephone signals are used to provide the connection.

Although these technologies are slower than DSL however, they can be used with laptops where the modem and USB ports must be connected.

Speed

The Downward speed ranges from 0.4 to 50 Mb/s.

The increasing up speed is between 0.2 and 6 Mbps.

The latency level can vary from 250 ms to800 ms depending on the location.

Cost

The monthly payment is $30 to $110 and the initial installation charge.

This technology can be extremely beneficial for people who travel, live in rural areas, or do ate work.

It’s more convenient to use because you don’t need another internet source while traveling around the area.

A 4G connection can download at a speed of approximately 21Mbps.

There are hopes that 4G will offer download speeds of up to 100 Mb/s or more.

It is very expensive, and can run between $30 and $120 per month.

The strength of signals received can fluctuate depending on how far the tower is from the cell phone.

Users may experience slow internet speeds if they subscribe to the lower grade.

There is a limit on the number of users. Only one user can be at any time. Multiple machines cannot therefore be used.

Satellite Internet

This is a more expensive internet connection technology. However, it is best for those who live in remote areas. It cannot allow file sharing and mail sending.

Installing satellite dish is expensive at approximately $1000. One will also need to subscribe to a monthly plan of between $100 and $250.

Speed

The Downward speed ranges from 0.5 to 1 Mbit/s

The increasing up speed ranges from 0.1 to 1.1 Mbps.

The latency level can range from 800 ms- 2500 ms depending on the location.

Cost

Users need to pay between $100 and $250 per month, $300-$1000 to purchase satellite dishes, as well as initial installation fees.

Advantages

It is ideal for remote areas that require internet access.

The internet is very slow with latency of 800ms.

It’s expensive to install and to subscribe.

Fiber optics service

This is the modern internet connection using the optic media. It uses the principle of light.

There are many internet providers offering optic cable connections. Their speeds vary between 300 Mbps to download, and 65 Mbps to upload.

These are the benefits of fiber cables.

Advantages

This enabled the highest internet speed, unlike satellite technology or cables.

It isn’t readily available in all areas.

The Top Technologies for Internet Connections

North Ronaldsay Island was experiencing a major problem with internet connection. There are many suggestions for options. They are chosen for specific areas depending on whether or not they are in urban or rural areas.

Here are some factors that I took into consideration when selecting my candidate.

Uploading and Downloading Speeds: It is important that users have internet speed.

Costs and contracts

Terms of Services: These are to confirm the limits that internet providers have placed on internet users. They may limit data usage for a specific period or restrict certain activities.

Internet Reliability. One should verify that the internet connection is available at all times. Also, it should indicate if it has been used by unauthorised users.

Support for Customers: This refers to whether providers are able to easily address problems faced by customers that may result in outage or failure. Check how providers support their customers.

Three internet connections were recommended for installation in different parts of the island that meet the following requirements:

This is the internet connection technology used primarily in urban areas. It is therefore recommended for use in towns, as it is easy to install and can be shared by many users.

3G/4G Wireless phone internet connection.

This technology is well-suited for remote areas and those who travel frequently.

Fiber optics service.

This internet connection technology is among the most reliable. It is capable of supporting heavy downloads as well as uploads. However it is best for gaming sites.

Relative costs of your solutions

Installation of the internet connection technology recommended above will require some funds. These funds are used to buy equipments and install costs, as well as monthly charges for the three technologies, as they get used by the user (Daniel (2014)).

The following table shows the relative installation budget for each technology.

Internet connection technology

Installation costs for each

Number of users

Total charges

3G/4G Wireless phone phone

Fiber optics service

Total

References

MIMO Power Line Communications: Narrow and Broadband Standards. U.S.A.C. Press, p. 250.

Satellite Communication Basics.

Professional Education International (INDIA:Inc publishers), p530

Official Study Guide to Certified Wireless Network Administrator, U.S. McGraw-Hill. P.320.

Robert, R. (2015).

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