Function of being human

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Aristotle claims that human beings are born virtuous.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseFlag question: Question 2Question 21 ptsAccording to Kant, the consequences of an action are not relevant to its moral worth.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseFlag question: Question 3Question 31 ptsAccording to Marx and Engels, a communist revolution will increase the need for political power.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseFlag question: Question 4Question 41 ptsMill argues that tyranny is still possible in a democracy.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseFlag question: Question 5Question 51 ptsGandhi argues that satyagraha always excludes violence.Group of answer choicesTrueFalseFlag question: Question 6Question 61 ptsSocrates argues that we shouldGroup of answer choicesonly injure others in self defensedisobey unjust lawsnever return injury for injuryharm ourselves rather than harming othersFlag question: Question 7Question 71 ptsThe term that Marx and Engels use to name the dominant class in a capitalist society isGroup of answer choicesProletariatBourgeoisieOverlordsThe Third EstateFlag question: Question 8Question 81 ptsThoreau claims that the highest court of moral appeal isGroup of answer choicesindividual consciencethe principle of utilitypersonal preferencethe spirit of revoltFlag question: Question 9Question 91 ptsAccording to Held, probably the most deeply fundamental value isGroup of answer choicesjusticereverencecaretoleranceFlag question: Question 10Question 101 ptsNietzsche’s term for the intrinsic drive to create beyond oneself isGroup of answer choicesthe elemental urgethe prime directivethe will to powerslave moralityFlag question: Question 11Question 111 ptsWhich of the following was NOT a term used by Wong to name an ethical doctrine?Group of answer choicesmeta-ethical relativismfundamental relativismnormative moral relativismabsolutism

12.

Short Answers: Select three questions to answer. Each answer should be 3-4 sentences.

What, according to Aristotle, is the function of being human?

According to Kant, how does an action done from inclination differ from an action done from duty?

What according to Bentham, motivates human behavior?

How does Nietzsche define the “Will to Power”?

What are Socrates’ principle reasons for refusing to escape?

According to Marx and Engels, what are the essential differences between the bourgeoisie and the proletariat?

What does Mill mean by civil or social liberty?

Why did Thoreau spend a night in jail? What insights did he draw from this experience? 

13.

Select two questions to answer. Each essay should be (3-4 paragraphs):

Carefully describe Aristotle’s views on the nature of the highest human good. What line of reasoning does Aristotle employ to discover this highest good?

Hoe does Bentham describe the principle of utility? What are the essential differences between the principle of utility and Kant’s categorical imperative?

Compare and contrast what Schweitzer says about human happiness with what Aristotle says. Do you think that human happiness is the ultimate goal of human existence?

Carefully explain Nietzsche’s distinction between master morality and slave morality. Which type of morality does Nietzsche prefer, and what are his basic reasons for doing so?

Explain carefully what Rousseau means by the social contract. Why and how is the social contract enacted? Do you think Rousseau’s concept of the social contract adequately explains the origin and legitimacy of social obligation?

Carefully explain the principle that Mill introduces to distinguish the proper boundary between legitimate government interference and individual freedom. Then describe two actions that, according to this principle, could be restricted and two that could not.

List and discuss four of the changes that Marx and Engels think will result from a communist revolution. Which, if any, of these changes would you welcome? Explain your answer. 

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